The federal government has proposed a complete overhaul of federal environmental assessment in Canada as part of the federal budget. The repeal and re-enactment of the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (“CEAA”) and amendments to other federal environmental legislation amounts to the most significant change in federal environmental assessment (“EA”) since the legislation was first created decades ago.
These amendments are clearly aimed at increasing investment in extractive industries by encouraging certainty, reducing regulatory duplication and shortening delays. The implications of these changes are vast and their full impact on the mining industry is not known. This is especially true in Ontario where miners will also have to deal with significant changes in aboriginal consultation under the Mining Act and the Far North Act as well as a new provincial Mining Class Environmental Assessment regime.
This is the second article in our series on the proposed changes to the federal environmental assessment regime and what that means for mining in Ontario. In our first article we provided a general overview of the changes. In this article we will discuss changes related to Aboriginal consultation. Future articles will deal with subjects including public participation, broad changes to the Fisheries Act, and harmonization with provincial environmental assessment processes.
While the proposed amendments to CEAA point to a reduced role for the federal government in assessing the environmental impacts from mines, the same cannot be said for Aboriginal consultation. The new CEAA strongly promotes Aboriginal involvement in the environmental assessment process through increased communication and co-operation and requires that environmental assessments address a range of effects on Aboriginal peoples.
Assessing Impacts on Aboriginal Peoples
CEAA continues to promote communication and cooperation with Aboriginal peoples as one of the enumerated purposes of environmental assessments. However, this purpose is given new force by an expanded list of environmental effects on Aboriginal peoples that must be taken into account.
The current CEAA requires the consideration of the impact of any change on “the current use of lands and resources for traditional purposes by Aboriginal Peoples.”¹ The proposed amendments to CEAA maintain this obligation but s. 5.1 also requires the consideration any effect in Canada on Aboriginal peoples’:
• health and socio-economic conditions;
• physical and cultural heritage; and
• structures of historical, archaeological, paleontological or architectural significance.
While each of these environmental effects is included in the current version of CEAA, assessment of their impact on Aboriginal peoples was not as explicitly required as under the proposed amendments. Community and Aboriginal traditional knowledge can also be taken into account in assessing environmental impacts. Unlike other classes of environmental effects, impacts on Aboriginal peoples are not limited to federal government land or jurisdiction. These broadly defined categories appear to apply to environmental effects throughout Canada and their precise definition will likely be the subject of litigation.
Interaction with Ontario Statutes
While these environmental effects on Aboriginal peoples must now be taken into account, a bigger question is how these requirements will interact with the new Ontario Aboriginal consultation regime. The Ministry of Northern Development and Mines is in the process of finalizing new regulations under the Mining Act that would require Aboriginal consultation for mining exploration and prospecting. The Far North Act also prohibits mining development in Ontario’s far north until community-based land use plans are developed. The content of many of these land use plans and whether they would satisfy some or all of the environmental assessment and Aboriginal consultation requirements under the new CEAA remains an open question.
Coordination between the federal and provincial governments is essential for the development of Mining in Ontario. At a minimum, this coordination (or harmonization) should include: the sharing and acceptance of information between federal and provincial authorities; allowing federal and provincial regulatory processes to run concurrently; and timely review by governments at both levels. The FMC Mining Group will prepare commentary entirely devoted to how the proposed amendments to CEAA interact with the new requirements in Ontario.
¹ Canadian Environmental Assessment Act, S.C. 1992, c.37 at s.2(1).